The first thing to understand about
R is the importance of
devices, which represent graphical devices that are currently active and available for use in graphical representation.
Typically, if the user doesn’t specify a default device to use, for
*nix-based systems with no screen device,
R will default to using the
pdf() graphical device. In other words, when file output is processed on
*nix systems, a
devices in action, open a standard
R prompt. Many of the manipulation methods for devices use the
dev object. For example, we can view the current list of active devices for this session (since it was just launched, it will likely be empty or
> dev.list() NULL
To add a new device, call the
> dev.new() dev.new(): using pdf(file="Rplots1.pdf")
This will instantiate a new device for the session and use the default device type (in this case on a
*nix machine, it defaults to
Now checking the device list, we now see our new
> dev.list() pdf 2
Output a File to Disk
Now with a basic understanding of how graphical devices are instantiated in
R, we can actually create output for our
plot quite easily.
We start by creating a simple
plot. In this case, we’ll plot a number of points on a cosine graph:
# run.R dev.new() x <- seq(1, 20, 0.05) y <- cos(x) plot(x,y) dev.off()
run.R script file is basic. We start by creating a new
dev.new() (although as discussed before, this is optional as
R will create a new device for you if necessary).
We then create some variables that store our vectors for
y, then pass them to the
plot() function to create our graph.
Finally, and most importantly when a file output is desired, we call the
dev.off() method. This causes the current graphic device to be shutdown, thereby producing an output on the active device.
Thus for our case, when running our
R creates a new default device (
plot() call within that
$ Rscript run.R dev.new(): using pdf(file="Rplots1.pdf") null device 1
Sure enough, we see a nice pretty graph in the
Rplots1.pdf file that was generated.
Modifying the Output File Type
There are a variety of device types available by default (pdf, postscript, bitmap, etc), and often depending on the installation of
R, additional graphical formats are also included (png, svg, jpeg, etc).
As we saw from the output above issuing the
dev.new() method call,
R actually invoked the
pdf() function to create that new device for us. This syntax is the same for other device types as well.
Therefore, if we wish to output to a different file type, we can simply modify the first line of our
run.R script to invoke a different device type, such as
# run.R png(file="plot.png") # Using png device instead of pdf default x <- seq(1, 20, 0.05) y <- cos(x) plot(x,y) dev.off()
Now after executing our script…
$ Rscript run.R null device 1
…a nice new
plot.png file is created with our plotted graph on there!